NETWORK PROTOCOL


Today we will know what is Protocol in Networking and what are its types? Protocol in Hindi means set of rules i.e. rules made for doing something. Similarly, when data transfer takes place in digital communication, then there are some rules for that too. Which are called network protocols.




The Internet Protocol suite is a set of computer networking models and protocols of communication used over the Internet and similar computer networks. It generally provides TCP/IP, TCP, IP, Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP). TCP/IP end-to-end connectivity specifies how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received/stored at the destination. This whole process organizes all related protocols into four abstract layers, according to the scope of their networking.


TYPES OF PROTOCOL 


Many types of data are transmitted through the Internet. Therefore, different Internet protocols have been developed for different data types, through which only specific types of data are transmitted. Below are the different types of Internet Protocols.


  •  TCP Transmission Control Protocol
  •  FTP - File Transfer Protocol
  •  HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  •  IMAP- Instant Message Access Protocol
  •  SMTP- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
  •  POP Post Office Protocol
  •  SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol
  •  PPP - Point to Point Protocol
  •  SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol

  •  UDP - User Datagram Protocol
  • MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension
  •  UUCP - Unix to Unix Copy Protocol
  •  Gopher
  •  Ethernet
  •  Usenet
  •  Telnet




1. TCP - Transmission Control Protocol


It is used to correctly order datagrams. Since datagrams have different sizes, When they reach the destination after determining the route, time, they are arranged in a sequence before being delivered to the receiving computer.TCP does the connecting work.It performs its function in conjunction with IP, which determines a unique name (IP Address) for each computer. That's why it is also called TCP / IP. TCP Key Full Form Transmission Control Protocol it occurs.


2. FTP - File Transfer Protocol 


This protocol is used to transfer files from one system to another. For which a special software (called a client) is used,The File Transfer Protocol is most commonly used to upload webpages to web servers so that they can be published through websites. Through this, from multimedia to simple text files, upload and download can be done easily and at a fast speed.


3. HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol


Go to the address bar of your browser and see what words begin with the address of this article? You will see that https is written there and write the rest of the URL in front of ://.

Yes, this is where http comes in handy, through which the rules for exchanging data with web servers are set. Based on this protocol does the web browser figure out how to deal with the data?

That is, what parameters must be followed to download it, the secure version of http https is used, whose full name is http secure.


4. IMAP - Internet Message Access Protocol


IMAP is a standard email protocol that stores emails on a mail server. but does not allow the recipient to read and edit it, as if the message was present on his device itself,This protocol acts like a remote mail server, the full form of IMAP is Internet Message Access Protocol. It is also called some Instant Message Access Protocol which is wrong, so be sure to keep this in mind.


5. SMTP- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol


SMTP is a popular email protocol used to send email. This protocol is used more than IMAP. Through this protocol, rules are determined for sending emails from one computer to another, on the basis of which emails are sent.


6. POP - Post Office Protocol


POP is used to receive email. POP3 ie the third version of this protocol is in vogue. Which has become a standard protocol for receiving email.


7. SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol


This  protocol  is the protocol to communicate between the two. These devices are pegged to each other. Only then can they communicate with each other.

It is a slower and less secure protocol that is rarely used, it is a variant of TCP/IP.

The full name of SLIP is Serial Line Internet Protocol.


8. PPP - Point to Point Protocol


This protocol is used to transfer protocol data over Paint-to-Point Links. That is, you can transfer data of different types of protocols through this protocol.

It has also fallen out of circulation but is still sometimes used to connect DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and modems.


9. SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol


The full form of SNMP is Simple Network Management Protocol, it is used to manage and monitor the devices connected to the networks local area network and white area network.

It is supported by almost all the devices included in the network, the Terris Wireless Access Point Gateway etc. and is also understood by the printers, scanners connected to its end point.


SNMP network has four main parts


• SNMP Agent

• SNMP Managed Devices and Resources 

• SNMP Manager 

• Management Information Base


10. UDP - User Datagram Protocol


UDP is also used like TCP. Through Low Latency and Loss Tolerating Connections are made, it works over the Internet protocol, so it is also collectively called UDP/IP. Is It is said that the full form of UDP is User Datagram Protocol.


11. MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension


MIME is an extension of the basic email protocol used to communicate over the Internet. different types of files.These files are audio, video, documents, graphics, application programs and simple ASCl text files. MIME is described in detail in RFC 1521-22. The full form of MIME is Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension.


12. UUCP - UNIX to UNIX Copy Protocol


UUCP is a set of UNIX programs by which files are transmitted from one UNIX system to another UNIX system as well as commands which can be executed by going to that system. The full form of UUCP is UNIX to UNIX Copy Protocol. Is.


13. Gopher


Gopher is a program that presents the world's information hierarchically to the priest. User can choose any topic as per his/her choice and can access it in his/her computer system through hyperlink.

The program was developed by the University of Minnesota, named after the Golden Gophers of the university's sports team.

This system was similar to today's www. But with its development, the trend of gopher stopped. Gopher was based on browser and file text. Today all the content of Gopher can be found from the web. 


14. Ethernet


Ethernet is the traditional technology by which devices are connected over a wired local area network. This protocol determines how devices on the network will communicate with each other so that other devices can recognize, receive, and process data. It is only physical or they exist within which data transfer takes place.


15. Usenet


Usenet, also called news, is a news protocol used on news and online forms. For this, NNTP Network News Transfer Protocol is used, through which webforms and company forms are controlled.

Usenet remains divided into several parts. Each part serves to control the discussion on a different topic. As such, SCI looks at discussions on science-related topics.


TYPES OF NETWORK PROTOCOL LAYERS


Layer 1: Network Access Layers


The network access layer defines how data will be sent physically, including how bits will be sent to hardware via electrical or optical signals, where the hardware is directly connected to network media such as co-axial cables, optical cables or The twisted pair is connected with the copper wire.


Layer 2: Internet Layer


The Internet layer packs the data into a data package called an IP datagram, with the source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagram to the host and network. The Internet layer is responsible for routing IP datagrams. Its function is to allow the host to send packages to any network and deliver them to the destination independently.


Layer 3: Transport Layer


The purpose of the transport layer is to allow source and destination host devices to communicate. The transport layer defines the level of service for data transport and the status of the connection.


Layer 4: The Application Layer 


The Application Layer defines the application layer, the TCP/IP application protocol, and the transport layer with the host program to interface network access.

The application layer includes DNS (Domain Naming System), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), Telnet, FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration) protocol) like all higher level protocols.

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